Cell Structure and Function

Prokaryoticno membrane-bound organelles

      • do not enclose DNA in the nucleus, generally smaller and simpler
      • For example, bacteria

Eukeryotic- membrane-bound organelles

      • enclose DNA in the nucleus
      • larger, more complex
      • For example, plants and animals

Animal Cell: cells that do a lot of protein synthesis have more ribosomes (rough ER)

Liver Cells – more smooth ER for detoxification

Muscle Cells – more mitochondria to increase energy production

Secretory cells – more Golgi to serve mucus, etc.


Organelle Function Prokaryotes Animal Plant
Vacuoles Storage X X
Lysosomes Filled with enzymes to break molecules down X X
Ribosomes Assemble proteins X X X
Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth-detoxification of drugs (no ribosomes)
Rough-protein synthesis site(ribosomes)
Golgi Apparatus Modify, sort and package things from ER X X
Chloroplasts Photosynthesis – convert light energy to chemical energy X
Mitochondria Cell powerhouse – converts chemical energy to usable from; cell respiration X X
Nucleus Contains DNA X X
Cytoskeleton Maintain cell shape, movement X X
Centrioles Organize cell division X
Cell wall Shape, support, protect cell X X
Cell Membrane Protect, support, regulate transport into /out of cell X X X