Categories of Organic Compounds

An organic compound is: a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon excluding carbonates and oxides.

There are 4 major types of organic compounds.

1. Carbohydrates:

  • contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  • can be energy sources or structural sources
  • exist as monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides

2. Proteins:

  • chains of amino acids made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
  • Examples: hair, horns, enzymes

3. Lipids:

  • large number of carbon hydrogen bonds, nonpolar bodies, polar head, store energy
  • Examples: wakes, steroids, triglycerides, phospholipids

4. Nucleic Acids:

  • large complex information
  • storage molecules
  • 2 types: DNA and RNA
  • consist of nitrogenous bases, phosphate groups, and 5 carbon sugars